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Princess II Division

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Sibyl Fendley
Sibyl Fendley

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Fry (2009, 2012) expanded the peace system construct conceptually and geographically beyond the Upper Xingu case by providing descriptions of the Iroquois Confederacy, Aboriginal Australia, and the European Union as additional peace systems. For example, prior to the formation of the Iroquois Confederacy, the original five member tribes, the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk, were locked into chronic warring and feuding (Dennis, 1993; Fenton, 1998; Fry, 2012). The Iroquoian peoples developed a new overarching identity in addition to their tribal identities, which they expressed metaphorically as five related families living in harmony in the same longhouse (see Fig. 2; Fenton, 1998). They expanded the tried-and-true institutions of the village council and tribal council to create the new higher-level institution, the Council of Chiefs, as an intertribal mechanism of governance and conflict management based on discussion and consensus (Dennis, 1993; Fenton, 1998). Peace values and norms were reinforced by narratives, symbols, and rituals, such as through the legend of the Peacemaker bringing tranquility and unity to the five tribes and the enactment of unifying condolence rites (Dennis, 1993; Fenton, 1998; Fry, 2012). Are such features generally found in peace systems 59ce067264


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